kitchen terms (part 5 of 5)

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Poach: To cook food gently in a simmering liquid so the food retains its shape.

Punch: Beverage composed of fruit juices, tea, carbonated drinks or any of these combined with liquor of alcoholic content.

Puree: To force cooked food through a sieve, food mill, strainer or cheesecloth.

Ragout: French for brown stew.

Ramekin: Individual baking dish or casserole; formerly only of porcelain.

Render: To heat any solid animal fat to melting point; also called "to try out."

Rice: To force food through a ricer or course sieve; applied to mashed potatoes and other foods.

Roast: To cook by fry heat in an oven.

Roe: The paste which is the basis of all cream sauces, white sauces and gravies; it is made by blending melted fat and flour; in brown roux, the flour is first browned in a hot pan.

Saute': To cook food in a pan containing a small amount of fat.

Scald: To heat liquid to just below the boiling point; also to cover fruits, meat, etc. with boiling water for a few minutes.

Scallop: See escallop. Also a shellfish.

Score: To cut halfway through; for example the fatty covering of ham is scored before baking; the outer rind of a cucumber is scored with a fork.

Scrape: To remove outer skin or flesh of a vegetable or fruit, holding the knife with blade at right angles against the food and moving it back and forth in a scraping, not a cutting, action.

Sear: To brown the surface of food, usually meat, by exposing it to high heat for a comparatively short period of time.

Sherbet: See ice. White of egg or milk added to an ice mixture classes the ice as a sherbet.

Shortening: Fat used for baking.

Simmer: To cook just below the boiling point; only occasional bubble appears on the liquids surface when it simmers; temperature at sea level for simmering is below 200 F.

Skewer: Long pin of metal or wood on which food is held while cooking; also smaller pins used to flatten pieces of meat or sections of poultry together while cooking.

Skim: To remove fat or other materials that float on top of a liquid with a skimmer or spoon.

Skimmed Milk: Milk from which cream has been removed.

Spatula: Flexible, wide-blade knife with a rounded end, used to loosen cakes, etc. after baking.

Steam: To cook above, and surround by, steam rising from boiling water. Steamers usually contain a rack on which the pan or mold of food rests while it cooks in the steam.

Steep: To allow a solid substance to stand in liquid just below the boiling point, while color, flavor and other qualities are extracted from it; for example, tea leaves are steeped in boiled water in making tea; see infusion.

Stock: Liquid in which foods have been cooked.

Toast: To brown by direct or oven heat; toasted bread.

Toss: To mix with light strokes, usually by lifting with a fork or spoon.

Truss: To fasten in position with skewers or twine, as to truss the legs and wings of a fowl for roasting.

Whip: To beat rapidly.

Whole Milk: Milk from which the cream has not been removed.

XXXX Sugar: See confectioners' sugar.

Submitted By MICHAEL ORCHEKOWSKI On 08-02-95

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