kitchen terms (part 4 of 5)

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Infusion: Tea, coffee, herbs, steeped by the addition of boiling water, which is poured off and served as a beverage.

Irradiate: To add vitamin D to foods by exposure to ultraviolent rays.

a' l'italienne: In the Italian style; garnished with Parmesan cheese or Italian tomato paste; or cooked in olive oil or all three.

Jelly Test: Dip a spoon into boiling jelly and let juice run off the edge of the spoon. If it runs into two separate streams, the jelly is not done. When the last few drops run off the spoon in a single sheet rather than in two or more separate streams the jelly is done.

Julienne: To cut into long slender pieces; usually applied to vegetables, sometimes to meat or cheese.

Knead: To work dough, usually with the hands, until it is a smooth, pliable mass.

Lard: To insert thin layers of fat between the fibers of thin meat; gashes may be cut in the meat and slender strips of salt pork or bacon introduced in the openings, then the meat is sewed or pressed together to cover the added fat. To enrich the food as it cooks with fat or lard.

Leaven: To raise; some leavening agents are baking powder, soda, eggs.

Legumes: Vegetables of the pea or pod family, including beans, lentils and peanuts.

Liquor: The liquid in which food is packed, as oyster liquor, or the liquor from canned fruits; pot liquor is the liquid in which vegetables have been boiled, either alone or with meat. Term used for all alcoholic beverages.

Lukewarm: A temperature about 100 to 110 F.

Marinate: To cover food with any liquid to give it flavor. French dressing is often used to marinate vegetables and meat, as is vinegar and lemon juice-various seasonings may be added; fruit juices, wines, milk are used; the liquid in which a food is thus treated is called a marinade.

Melt: To liquefy by heat; melting is usually done at low heat.

Meringue: A mixture of stiffly beaten egg whites and sugar; maybe cooked or uncooked.

Mince: To chop in very fine pieces.

Mocha: Coffee flavor; usually a mixture of coffee and chocolate.

Mousse: Frozen mousse usually contains whipped cream and gelatin, is flavored with fruit, sweet sauces, wines or cordials and is frozen in a mold packed in ice; a cooked mousse, such as ham mousse or fish mousse also contains gelatin and cream and is baked or steamed.

Pan Broil: To cook uncovered in a frying pan without fat, or just enough fat to keep food from sticking.

Pan Fry: To cook in a frying pan with little fat; nearly the same as pan broil, although some fat is added for any pan frying.

Parboil: To cook to near tenderness in boiling water; cooking is then usually completed by some other method.

Parfait: A smooth, rich ice cream containing eggs, frozen in small paper cups; or a tall dessert glass filled with syrup or fruit, ice cream and whipped cream.

Pasteurize: To apply below-boiling heat for a given time to a food to kill bacteria; used commercially for milk; used in the home in the preservation of fruit juices and other foods.

Pate': Paste usually of mashed, seasoned liver; pate' de foie gras is imported goose liver paste containing chopped truffles.

Peel: To pare; also to remove the skins of oranges, tangerines, etc., with the finger; to skin tomatoes and other thin- skinned fruits and vegetables.

Petits Fours: Small squares, rounds and fancy shapes of cake iced in colors.

Pipe: To force through a pastry tube; frostings, salad dressing or pureed vegetables are sometimes piped on other foods for decorative effect. Submitted By MICHAEL ORCHEKOWSKI On 08-02-95

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